Behavioral-transcriptomic landscape of engineered T cells targeting human cancer organoids


Cellular immunotherapies are rapidly gaining clinical importance, yet predictive platforms for modeling their mode of action are lacking. Here, we developed a dynamic immuno-organoid 3D imaging-transcriptomics platform; BEHAV3D, to unravel the behavioral and underlying molecular mechanisms of solid tumor targeting. Applied to an emerging cancer metabolome-sensing immunotherapy: TEGs, we first demonstrate targeting of multiple breast cancer subtypes. Live-tracking of over 120,000 TEGs revealed a diverse behavioral landscape and identified a -super engager- cluster with serial killing capability. Inference of single-cell behavior with transcriptomics identified the gene signature of -super engager- killer TEGs, which contained 27 genes with no previously described T cell function. Furthermore, guided by a dynamic type 1 interferon (IFN-I) signaling module induced by high TEG-sensitive organoids, we show that IFN-I can prime resistant organoids for TEG-mediated killing. Thus, BEHAV3D characterizes behavioral-phenotypic heterogeneity of cellular immunotherapies and holds promise for improving solid tumor-targeting in a patient-specific manner.